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Pathogen Identification

Influenza Panel

Assay Code: HPI-070

This Assay includes the detection of Influenza A, Influenza B and Influenza subtype H1N1.
Influenza viruses are negative-sense single stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza A (FLUA) is associated with acute respiratory infections of varying severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease. Typical influenza symptoms include fever, sore throat, cough, headache and myalgia. Complications include primary influenza viral pneumonitis, bacterial pneumonia and exacerbation of underlying chronic conditions. Illness tends to be most severe in the elderly, in infants and young children, and in the immunocompromised. The swine-lineage influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A(H1N1)swl) was reported in spring 2009. In June 2009, the WHO declared an H1N1 pandemic, moving the alert level to phase 6, marking the first global pandemic since the 1968 Hong Kong flu. Influenza B (FLUB) viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, Influenza B is less common than influenza A and does not cause pandemics.

Influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Annual immunization is strongly recommended for older people, pregnant women, those at risk and those who work or live with vulnerable groups.


METHOD

Real Time PCR for the detection of Influenza A, Influenza B and Influenza subtype H1N1.


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasal Swab (2 swabs), sputum (3ml).
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Novel Coronavirus (MERS)

Assay Code: HPM-020

Coronaviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses causing mainly respiratory and enteric disease in a range of animals and in humans. Four different human coronaviruses (hCoV) circulate at a global population level. These cause the common cold. The fifth important hCoV is SARS-CoV, which appeared for a limited time period during 2002 and 2003. It caused an outbreak affecting at least 8,000 people. During September 2012, health authorities were notified of several cases of severe hCoV infection caused by a novel virus type hCoV-EMC. The strain was redefined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses into Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus MERS-CoV since it was first reported in Saudi Arabia.

MERS-CoV is a beta coronavirus. Most people infected with MERS-CoV developed severe acute respiratory illness with symptoms of fever, cough, and shortness of breath. MERS-CoV has been shown to spread between people who are in close contact.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasal swab (2 swabs), Sputum (3ml).
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Filovirus (Z-ebola and Marburg virus)

Assay Code: HPF-071

Ebola and Marburgvirus are genera within the family Filoviridae. Genus Marburg¬virus contains a single species termed Marburg marburgvirus (MARV). Genus Ebolavirus contains five species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV), Reston ebolavirus (RESTV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Tai Forest ebolavirus (TAFV) and Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV).

All known Ebola- and Marburgvirus species are endemic in Africa except RESTV which is endemic in South-East Asia. Natural hosts of filoviruses are fruit-bats. After transmission to humans, filoviruses can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with a relatively high mortality rate of 20-90% (depending on the species and strain in the single outbreaks). The mode of transmission is often difficult to determine. Hunting, slaughtering and consumption of infected wild animals are likely ways of introduction of the virus into the human population. Direct contact to bats has also been shown to be a possible way of infection.

Symptoms are rather unspecific at the beginning of the disease including general malaise, fever and pain in different body parts. As the disease progresses, more severe symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea, decreased function of liver and kidney are seen. Infectious virus titer and RNA-titer during acute disease are usually high and the level of viremia is negatively correlated with the outcome of disease.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA Blood (3ml), serum (3ml) body fluids (3ml). Please contact MBG Lab in advance for correct package and transport requirements.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Bacterial Gastroenteritis Panel

Assay Code: HPB-072

Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are the top 3 leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting, Fever and chills, abdominal pain, Blood in the stool (in severe cases).

PATHOGENS TESTED

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) - Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. They are are food-borne pathogens.

Campylobacter - Campylobacter are a group of bacteria that are a common cause of food poisoning. Typically, food poisoning causes gastroenteritis, leading to diarrhea. Symptoms include and cause diarrhea, fever, and cramps. Campylobacter bacteria, usually transmitted in contaminated food or water.

Clostridium difficile - Clostridium difficile, often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Clostridium difficile is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment — in soil, air, water, human and animal feces, and food products, such as processed meats.

Yersinia enterocolitica - Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Symptoms of Y enterocolitica infection typically include diarrhea, low-grade fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Yersiniae are usually transmitted to humans by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water.

SShigella - SShigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive tract and cause a wide range of symptoms, from diarrhea (which often is bloody), cramping, vomiting, nausea and shigellosis. Shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery or Marlow Syndrome and is a foodborne illness. Shigella can be passed through direct contact with the bacteria in the stool. Shigella bacteria also can be passed in contaminated food or by drinking or swimming in contaminated water.

Salmonella - A salmonella infection is a foodborne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines (Salmonellosis), causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) - Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) infection causes an infection that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. The illness is characterized by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stools of infected individuals or by a condition called colitis. Dysentery caused by EIEC usually occurs within 12 to 72 hours following the ingestion of contaminated food.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Stool (5g)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Brucella Species

Assay Code: HPB-025

Brucellosis is a chronic and contagious disease caused by several species of the Brucella bacterium. The disease can affect many species of mammals, particularly cattle, swine, bison, elk, deer, goats, sheep, horses and other ruminants. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can spread from animals to humans. There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans. In cattle the organisms are present in uterine discharges and in milk. Human brucellosis is usually not transmitted from human to human; people become infected by contact with fluids from infected animals or derived food products like unpasteurized milk and cheese containing the bacteria.

Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia. Later complications may include arthritis or epididymoorchitis, spondylitis, neurobrucellosis, liver abscess formation, and endocarditis.

The prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, and occupational hygiene. Brucellosis can be prevented mainly by practising strict hygiene in producing raw milk products, or by pasteurizing all milk that is to be ingested by human beings, either in its unaltered form or as a derivate, such as cheese. Using appropriate barrier precautions (goggles, gloves, masks, etc) to avoid exposure to aerosols and body fluids of infected animal for those with an occupational risk for brucellosis can help in prevention.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA blood (3ml), tissue (1g), culture (3ml)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Brucella abortus

Assay Code: HPB-023

Brucellosis is a chronic and contagious disease caused by several species of the Brucella bacterium. The disease can affect many species of mammals, particularly cattle, swine, bison, elk, deer, goats, sheep, horses and other ruminants. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can spread from animals to humans. There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans. In cattle the organisms are present in uterine discharges and in milk. Human brucellosis is usually not transmitted from human to human; people become infected by contact with fluids from infected animals or derived food products like unpasteurized milk and cheese containing the bacteria.

Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia. Later complications may include arthritis or epididymoorchitis, spondylitis, neurobrucellosis, liver abscess formation, and endocarditis.

The prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, and occupational hygiene. The main way of preventing brucellosis is by using fastidious hygiene in producing raw milk products, or by pasteurizing all milk that is to be ingested by human beings, either in its unaltered form or as a derivate, such as cheese. Using appropriate barrier precautions (goggles, gloves, masks, etc) to avoid exposure to aerosols and body fluids of infected animal for those with an occupational risk for brucellosis can help in prevention.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA blood (3ml), tissue (1g), culture (3ml)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Brucella Melitensis

Assay Code: HPB-024

Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis mainly transmitted from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and camels through direct contact with blood, placenta, fetuses or uterine secretions, or through consumption of contaminated raw animal products (especially unpasteurized milk and soft cheese). In endemic areas, human brucellosis has serious public health consequences. Brucella melitensisis is the most prevalent species causing human brucellosis worldwide, owing in part to difficulties in immunizing free-ranging goats and sheep. In countries where eradication in animals (through vaccination and/or elimination of infected animals) is not feasible, prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, occupational hygiene and laboratory safety. In most countries, brucellosis is a notifiable disease. The incubation period is highly variable, usually 2-4 weeks, can be 1 week to 2 months or longer. Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia. Later complications may include arthritis or epididymoorchitis, spondylitis, neurobrucellosis, liver abscess formation, and endocarditis.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA blood (3ml), tissue (1g), culture (3ml)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Burkholderia mallei

Assay Code: HPB-026

B.mallei is a gram negative bipolar aerobic bacterium belonging to the genus Burkholderia. It causes a contagious and fatal disease in horses, donkeys, and mules which is called as Glanders. The disease causes nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Glanders can be naturally contracted by other mammals such as goat, dogs and cat. B.mallei can be transmitted to humans and all infected/contaminated or potentially infected/contaminated material must be handled carefully in a laboratory. B. mallei is considered a potential agent of biological warfare or bioterrorism, CDC lists them in category B of the list of bioterrorism agents.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA blood (3ml), tissue (1g), nasal swab (2 swabs)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Campylobacter jejuni

Assay Code: HPC-028

Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Culture (3ml)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Campylobacter coli

Assay Code: HPC-029

Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Culture (3ml)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Chlamydophila species

Assay Code: HPC-031

The most common species of Chlamydia that cause infection in humans are:

Chlamydia trachomatis: is the most commonly known species and the causative agent of Chlamydia, the sexually transmitted disease. This bacterium can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and infect the eyes causing conjunctivitis. The genital infection causes urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis in males and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females with an increased risk of contracting HIV. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via contact with infected bodily fluids which then infect mucosal membranes.

Chlamydophila pneumonia: is a etiologic agent of respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia. C.pneumoniae is the causative agent of an atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) similar to those caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumoniae. Chlamydophila pneumoniae can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis. The organism is transmitted person- to-person by respiratory droplets and causes bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia.

Chlamydia psittaci: causes psittacosis, and occasionally conjuctivitis and myocarditis in man, and infection associated with abortion, arthritis, conjuctivitis, encephalomyelitis and enteritis. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Mild flu-like illness and Reactive arthritis may appear. Human infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Pharyngeal swab (2swabs), stool (5g), EDTA blood (3ml), tissue (1g), culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Clostridium perfringens

Assay Code: HPC-032

Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is everpresent in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Cooking kills the growing C. perfringens cells that cause food poisoning, but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140°F (the “Danger Zone”). This means that they grow quickly at room temperature, but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. Since C. perfringens forms spores that can withstand cooking temperatures, if cooked food is let stand for long enough, germination can ensue and infective bacterial colonies develop. Symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever are usual. The whole course usually resolves within 24 hours. Very rare, fatal cases of clostridial necrotizing enteritis (also known as pigbel) have been known to involve "Type C" strains of the organism, which produce a potently ulcerative ß-toxin.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Stool (5g), Tissue (1g), Rectal swab (2 swabs), Culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Coxiella species (C.burnetti, C.symbiont)

Assay Code: HPC-033

Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative coccobacillus that causes Q-Fever disease in animals and humans. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The infection has been found in various wild and domestic animals and birds and in some arthropods, such as ticks. The species most commonly infected are cattle, sheep and goats. Infections with coxiella burnetii include placentitis (inflammation of the placenta) and subsequent abortion in cattle, sheep and goats. The organism may be present in the reproductive fluids or raw milk from infected animals. In humans, Q Fever is generally a self limiting illness. Some individuals become ill and exhibit symptoms similar to a flu-like illness or pneumonia.

This assay is used for the detection of both C.burnetti and C.symbiont; however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA blood (3ml), tissue (1g), culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Genital infections / STD screening Panel

Assay Code: HPG-073

STD Panel is an in vitro test for the detection of viral and bacterial DNA as an aid in the Evaluation of infections by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, Treponema pallidum. These infections are sexually transmitted and can be life threatening if left untreated.

To prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, always avoid sex with anyone who has genital sores, a rash, discharge, or other symptoms. Use of barrier devices during intercourse can prevent spread of STD.

PATHOGENS TESTED

Chlamydia trachomatis - Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacteria commonly causing sexually transmitted disease that can lead to infertility. Usually asymptomatic in women, some develop pelvic inflammatory disease, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge. In males symptoms such as infectious urethritis, painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever are seen. Occasionally infection may spread to the epididymis (storage tubes for sperm overlying the testes in the testicle), which can be very painful and may lead to infertility. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci, is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea in both men and women. Often, gonorrhea has no symptoms. Most people are not aware that they have the infection — especially women. Some women may have symptoms such as vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain or pain with intercourse. If left untreated it can lead to long term complication such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Most men who are infected have symptoms such as urethritis associated with burning with urination and discharge from the penis. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves. Gonorrhea can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during birth.

Mycoplasma genitalium - Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium which lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women, symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2 - Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that cause genital ulcers. HSV is a sexually transmitted disease. HSV-1 is associated with many clinical manifestations including gingivostomatitis, eye infections, and various skin complications including cold sores, whitlow and super infection of eczema. HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and produces painful sores, usually in the genital area.HSV can also cause meningitis or encephalitis. Sometimes genital herpes infection can lead to miscarriage or premature birth. Herpes infection can be passed from mother to child resulting in a potentially fatal infection (neonatal herpes).

Treponema pallidum Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases such as syphilis, bejel, pinta and yaws whspread through close sexual contact. Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity. The bacteria pass through intact mucous membranes and abraded skin; they are then carried by the blood stream to every organ in the body. The symptoms of syphilis depend on the stage of the disease. Many people do not have symptoms. In general, painless sores and swollen lymph nodes are possible symptoms of primary syphilis. Those with secondary syphilis may also have fever, fatigue, rash, aches and pains, and loss of appetite, among other symptoms. Tertiary syphilis causes heart, brain, and nervous system problems. The organism can also be transmitted to a fetus by transplacental passage during the later stages of pregnancy, giving rise to congenital syphilis.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Urine (10ml), Genital swab (2 swabs), rectal swab (2 swabs).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Hepatitis B virus DNA

Assay Code: HPH-074

The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the Hepadnaviridae with an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. HBV contains a small, partially double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA genome. HBV infection is a global public health problem, with over 300 million chronically infected patients worldwide. Chronic HBV infection are associated with a high risk of developing severe liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and results in a million deaths. Symptoms of acute infection include liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice, and abdominal pain. Modes of transmission are the same as those for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious. Hepatitis B is usually spread when blood, semen, or another body fluid from a person infected with the Hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. This can happen through sexual contact with an infected person or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment. Hepatitis B can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Being able to detect and quantify the DNA allows an estimation of infectivity and the likelihood of progression to severe chronic disease. It is also useful to monitor the success of treatment. Occasionally people can be HBV DNA positive without other serological markers such as HBsAg, for example in the first two weeks of the infection.

The best way to prevent Hepatitis B is by getting vaccinated.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

EDTA Blood (ml), Serum (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Influenza H9

Assay Code: HPI-014

This Assay includes the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H9.
Influenza viruses that infect birds are called avian influenza viruses. Only influenza A viruses infect birds, and all known subtypes of influenza A viruses can infect birds. However, there are substantial genetic differences between the subtypes that typically infect both people and birds. Within subtypes of avian influenza A viruses there also are different strains. Avian influenza A H5 and H7 viruses can be distinguished as “low pathogenic” and “high pathogenic” forms on the basis of genetic features of the virus and the severity of the illness they cause in poultry; influenza H9 virus has been identified only in a “low pathogenicity” form.

Types, Subtypes, and Strains
There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Only influenza A viruses are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemaglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A subtypes and B viruses are further classified by strains.

Low Pathogenic versus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Viruses
Avian influenza A virus strains are further classified as low pathogenic (LPAI) or highly pathogenic (HPAI) on the basis of specific molecular genetics and pathogenesis criteria that require specific testing. Most avian influenza A viruses are LPAI viruses that are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. In contrast, HPAI viruses can cause severe illness and high mortality in poultry. More recently, some HPAI viruses (e.g., H5N1 ) have been found to cause no illness in some poultry, such as ducks. LPAI viruses have the potential to evolve into HPAI viruses and this has been documented in some poultry outbreaks. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7,including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with HPAI, and human infection with these viruses have ranged from mild (H7N3, H7N7) to severe and fatal disease (H7N7, H5N1). Human illness due to infection with LPAI viruses has been documented, including very mild symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis) to influenza-like illness. Examples of LPAI viruses that have infected humans include H7N7, H9N2, and H7N2.


METHOD

Real Time PCR for the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H9.


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasal swab (2 swabs), Sputum (3ml)
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Influenza H7

Assay Code: HPI-015

This Assay includes the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H7.
Influenza viruses that infect birds are called avian influenza viruses. Only influenza A viruses infect birds, and all known subtypes of influenza A viruses can infect birds. However, there are substantial genetic differences between the subtypes that typically infect both people and birds. Within subtypes of avian influenza A viruses there also are different strains. Avian influenza A H5 and H7 viruses can be distinguished as “low pathogenic” and “high pathogenic” forms on the basis of genetic features of the virus and the severity of the illness they cause in poultry; influenza H9 virus has been identified only in a “low pathogenicity” form.

Types, Subtypes, and Strains
There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Only influenza A viruses are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemaglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A subtypes and B viruses are further classified by strains.

Low Pathogenic versus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Viruses
Avian influenza A virus strains are further classified as low pathogenic (LPAI) or highly pathogenic (HPAI) on the basis of specific molecular genetics and pathogenesis criteria that require specific testing. Most avian influenza A viruses are LPAI viruses that are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. In contrast, HPAI viruses can cause severe illness and high mortality in poultry. More recently, some HPAI viruses (e.g., H5N1 ) have been found to cause no illness in some poultry, such as ducks. LPAI viruses have the potential to evolve into HPAI viruses and this has been documented in some poultry outbreaks. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7,including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with HPAI, and human infection with these viruses have ranged from mild (H7N3, H7N7) to severe and fatal disease (H7N7, H5N1). Human illness due to infection with LPAI viruses has been documented, including very mild symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis) to influenza-like illness. Examples of LPAI viruses that have infected humans include H7N7, H9N2, and H7N2.


METHOD

Real Time PCR for the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H7.


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasal swab (2 swabs), Sputum (3ml)
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Influenza H5

Assay Code: HPI-016

This Assay includes the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H5.
Influenza viruses that infect birds are called avian influenza viruses. Only influenza A viruses infect birds, and all known subtypes of influenza A viruses can infect birds. However, there are substantial genetic differences between the subtypes that typically infect both people and birds. Within subtypes of avian influenza A viruses there also are different strains. Avian influenza A H5 and H7 viruses can be distinguished as “low pathogenic” and “high pathogenic” forms on the basis of genetic features of the virus and the severity of the illness they cause in poultry; influenza H9 virus has been identified only in a “low pathogenicity” form.

Types, Subtypes, and Strains
There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Only influenza A viruses are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemaglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A subtypes and B viruses are further classified by strains.

Low Pathogenic versus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Viruses
Avian influenza A virus strains are further classified as low pathogenic (LPAI) or highly pathogenic (HPAI) on the basis of specific molecular genetics and pathogenesis criteria that require specific testing. Most avian influenza A viruses are LPAI viruses that are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. In contrast, HPAI viruses can cause severe illness and high mortality in poultry. More recently, some HPAI viruses (e.g., H5N1 ) have been found to cause no illness in some poultry, such as ducks. LPAI viruses have the potential to evolve into HPAI viruses and this has been documented in some poultry outbreaks. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7,including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with HPAI, and human infection with these viruses have ranged from mild (H7N3, H7N7) to severe and fatal disease (H7N7, H5N1). Human illness due to infection with LPAI viruses has been documented, including very mild symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis) to influenza-like illness. Examples of LPAI viruses that have infected humans include H7N7, H9N2, and H7N2.


METHOD

Real Time PCR for the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H5.


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasal Swab (2 swabs), Sputum (3ml) in RNA preservative
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media . Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Influenza N1

Assay Code: HPI-017

This Assay includes the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H9.
Influenza viruses that infect birds are called avian influenza viruses. Only influenza A viruses infect birds, and all known subtypes of influenza A viruses can infect birds. However, there are substantial genetic differences between the subtypes that typically infect both people and birds. Within subtypes of avian influenza A viruses there also are different strains. Avian influenza A H5 and H7 viruses can be distinguished as “low pathogenic” and “high pathogenic” forms on the basis of genetic features of the virus and the severity of the illness they cause in poultry; influenza H9 virus has been identified only in a “low pathogenicity” form.

Types, Subtypes, and Strains
There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Only influenza A viruses are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemaglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A subtypes and B viruses are further classified by strains.

Low Pathogenic versus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Viruses
Avian influenza A virus strains are further classified as low pathogenic (LPAI) or highly pathogenic (HPAI) on the basis of specific molecular genetics and pathogenesis criteria that require specific testing. Most avian influenza A viruses are LPAI viruses that are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. In contrast, HPAI viruses can cause severe illness and high mortality in poultry. More recently, some HPAI viruses (e.g., H5N1 ) have been found to cause no illness in some poultry, such as ducks. LPAI viruses have the potential to evolve into HPAI viruses and this has been documented in some poultry outbreaks. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7,including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with HPAI, and human infection with these viruses have ranged from mild (H7N3, H7N7) to severe and fatal disease (H7N7, H5N1). Human illness due to infection with LPAI viruses has been documented, including very mild symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis) to influenza-like illness. Examples of LPAI viruses that have infected humans include H7N7, H9N2, and H7N2.


METHOD

Real Time PCR for the detection of Influenza A and Influenza subtype H9.


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasal swab (2 swabs), sputum (3ml).
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Influenza H5N1

Assay Code: HPI-018

This Assay includes the detection of Influenza A, Influenza subtype H5 and Influenza subtype N1.
Influenza viruses that infect birds are called avian influenza viruses. Only influenza A viruses infect birds, and all known subtypes of influenza A viruses can infect birds. However, there are substantial genetic differences between the subtypes that typically infect both people and birds. Within subtypes of avian influenza A viruses there also are different strains. Avian influenza A H5 and H7 viruses can be distinguished as “low pathogenic” and “high pathogenic” forms on the basis of genetic features of the virus and the severity of the illness they cause in poultry; influenza H9 virus has been identified only in a “low pathogenicity” form.

Types, Subtypes, and Strains
There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Only influenza A viruses are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemaglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A subtypes and B viruses are further classified by strains.

Low Pathogenic versus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Viruses
Avian influenza A virus strains are further classified as low pathogenic (LPAI) or highly pathogenic (HPAI) on the basis of specific molecular genetics and pathogenesis criteria that require specific testing. Most avian influenza A viruses are LPAI viruses that are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. In contrast, HPAI viruses can cause severe illness and high mortality in poultry. More recently, some HPAI viruses (e.g., H5N1 ) have been found to cause no illness in some poultry, such as ducks. LPAI viruses have the potential to evolve into HPAI viruses and this has been documented in some poultry outbreaks. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7,including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with HPAI, and human infection with these viruses have ranged from mild (H7N3, H7N7) to severe and fatal disease (H7N7, H5N1). Human illness due to infection with LPAI viruses has been documented, including very mild symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis) to influenza-like illness. Examples of LPAI viruses that have infected humans include H7N7, H9N2, and H7N2.


METHOD

Real Time PCR for the detection of Influenza A, Influenza subtype H5 and Influenza subtype N1.


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasal swab (2 swabs), Sputum (3ml
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Legionella species

Assay Code: HPL-035

Legionella is a pathogenic group of gram negative bacterium. It thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems.

Legionella pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium in Legionella species and is the causative agent of legionellosis or Legionnaires disease. Legionella pneumophila invades and replicates in macrophages. Patients with Legionnaires' disease usually have pneumonia, fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Some patients also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), and occasionally diarrhoea and vomiting. Confusion and impaired cognition and low normal heart rate may also occur. Test may reveal the patient’s renal functions, liver functions and electrolytes are deranged, including hyponatremia. It is not transmitted from person to person. It is transmitted by inhalation of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the bacteria.

Legionella longbeachae causes Pontiac fever. Pontiac fever is an acute, non-fatal respiratory disease that causes a mild upper respiratory infection. Symptoms can include fever, headaches and muscle aches but unlike Legionnaires' disease Pontiac Fever does not cause pneumonia. Like other Legionella species, person-to-person transmission has not been documented. However, unlike other species the primary transmission mode is inhalation of dust from contaminated compost or soil that contains the organism causing legionellosis.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Water sample (10ml), Sputum (3ml), Culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Legionella pneumophila

Assay Code: HPL-034

Legionella is a pathogenic group of gram negative bacterium. It thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems.

Legionella pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium in Legionella species and is the causative agent of legionellosis or Legionnaires disease. Legionella pneumophila invades and replicates in macrophages. Patients with Legionnaires' disease usually have pneumonia, fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Some patients also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), and occasionally diarrhoea and vomiting. Confusion and impaired cognition and low normal heart rate may also occur. Test may reveal the patient’s renal functions, liver functions and electrolytes are deranged, including hyponatremia. It is not transmitted from person to person. It is transmitted by inhalation of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the bacteria.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Water sample (10ml), Sputum (3ml), Culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Leptospira Species

Assay Code: HPL-036

Leptospirosis is a transmissible disease of animals and humans caused by infection with any of the pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira. It is considered the most common zoonosis in the world and is associated with rodents in settings of poor sanitation, agricultural occupations, and increasingly "adventure" sports or races involving fresh water, mud, or soil exposure. Acute leptospirosis should be suspected in the following cases: sudden onset of agalactia (in adult milking cattle and sheep); icterus and haemoglobinuria, especially in young animals; meningitis; and acute renal failure or jaundice in dogs. Chronic leptospirosis should be considered in the following cases: abortion, stillbirth, birth of weak offspring (may be premature); infertility; chronic renal failure or chronic active hepatitis in dogs; and cases of periodic ophthalmia in horses.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

EDTA blood (3ml), organ swab (2 swabs), Tissue (1g), Culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Mycoplasma species (General)

Assay Code: HPM-041

Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that are the smallest living cells known. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are pathogenic in humans, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory diseases.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae - Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia, and is related to cold agglutinin disease. It is also referred to as walking pneumonia. Symptoms include cough that may come in violent spasms but produce very little mucus, mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, sore throat, headache, tiredness malaise and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is spread by contact with droplets from nose and throat of an infected person.

Mycoplasma genitalium - Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium which lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Tissue (1g), EDTA blood (3ml), Nasal / oropharyngeal swab (2 swabs), Culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Parainfluenza 1, 2, 3 and 4

Assay Code: HPP-075

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the etiologic agents causing human parainfluenza. There are four types of parainfluenza virus, all of which can cause upper respiratory infections or lower respiratory infections (pneumonia) in adults and children. The virus can cause croup, bronchiolitis, bronchitis and certain types of pneumonia. Symptoms of upper respiratory illness may include fever, runny nose, and cough. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 may cause cold-like symptoms in people who are infected. HPIV-1 often causes croup in children; HPIV-2 can also cause croup. HPIV-3 is more often associated with bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. HPIV-4 is not recognized as often, but may cause mild to severe respiratory tract illnesses. HPIVs usually spread from person to person through the air by coughing and sneezing, close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands, and touching objects or surfaces that have HPIVs on them then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes. HPIVs can stay in the air for over an hour and on surfaces for a few hours and still infect people. There are no vaccines available for parainfluenza. Avoiding crowds to limit exposure during peak outbreaks may decrease the likelihood of infection. Limiting exposure to day care centers and nurseries may delay infection until the child is older.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Throat / nasal Swab (2 swabs), bronchoalveolar lavage (3ml).
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Streptococcus equi equi

Assay Code: HPS-043 & HPS-042

Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi var. equi) is the bacterium which causes the highly contagious disease strangles (also known as “distemper”). Strangles commonly affects young horses (weanlings and yearlings), but horses of any age can be infected. Following natural infection, a carrier state of variable duration may develop and intermittent shedding may occur. The organism is transmitted by direct contact with infected horses or sub-clinical shedders, or indirectly by contact with: water troughs, hoses, feed bunks, pastures, stalls, trailers, tack, grooming equipment, nose wipe cloths or sponges, attendants’ hands and clothing, or insects contaminated with nasal discharge or pus draining from lymph nodes of infected horses. Streptococcus equi has demonstrated environmental survivability particularly in water sources and when protected from exposure to direct sunlight and disinfectants, and can be a source of infection for new additions to the herd.

Vaccination against S. equi is recommended on premises where strangles is a persistent endemic problem or for horses that are expected to be at high risk of exposure. S. equi and S. zooepidemicus are antigenically similar organisms. However, exposure to, or vaccination against, one does not confer reliable immunity to the other.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Nasopharyngeal swab (2 swabs), Nasal/Tracheal wash (3ml), Abscess swab (2 swabs), Culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Trypanosoma species (T.evansi, T. brucei)

Assay Code: HPT-049

Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites which have acquired their infection from human beings or from animals harbouring human pathogenic parasites.

Human African trypanosomiasis takes 2 forms, depending on the parasite involved:

  • Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is found in 24 countries in west and central Africa. This form currently accounts for over 98% of reported cases of sleeping sickness and causes a chronic infection. A person can be infected for months or even years without major signs or symptoms of the disease. When more evident symptoms emerge, the patient is often already in an advanced disease stage where the central nervous system is affected.
  • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is found in 13 countries in eastern and southern Africa. Nowadays, this form represents under 2% of reported cases and causes an acute infection. First signs and symptoms are observed a few months or weeks after infection. The disease develops rapidly and invades the central nervous system. Only Uganda presents both forms of the disease, but in separate zones.

This assay is used for the detection of both T. evansi and T.brucei, however, it can not be used to differentiate between the two subtypes.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA blood (3ml), Culture (3ml).


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Viral Gastroenteritis Panel

Assay Code: HPG-076

FTD Viral gastroenteritis is an in vitro test for the qualitative detection of virus nucleic acid in stool samples as an aid to the evaluation of infections with norovirus G1, norovirus G2, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus and sapovirus.

PATHOGENS TESTED

Noroviruses (NoroG1 and NoroG2) are single-stranded RNA viruses without an outer envelope. They are an important cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. They infect all age groups, with particularly severe disease occurring in young children, elderly patients, and persons with preexisting conditions. The incubation time is approximately 24hrs and individuals can shed the viruses in faeces for up to 2 weeks after the infection. They can survive outside of a person on surfaces for several days. Their mode of transmission may be foodborne, waterborne or person-to-person contact via virus containing aerosols and the faecal- oral route. Less than 20 virus particles can be infectious. There is no therapy available.

Rotaviruses (Rota) carry dsRNA encapsulated in a complex virus particle and are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Infections in adults and the elderly are less frequent but have been documented. Rotavirus has a short incubation period of 1 to 3 days. The virus is shed in faeces for an average for 4 days although excretion of virus for up to 30 days has been reported in immunocompromised patients. The mode of transmission can be faecal-oral, through contaminated water and food. As little as 10 virus particles can cause an infection. Different vaccines are on the market.

Astroviruses (Astro) are a significant cause of acute gastroenteritis, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea. The virus nucleic acid consists of non-encapsulated ssRNA. Most infections are mild and self limiting, however, the most severe affected group are children under the age of 2 years. Studies implement that the incidence of Astrovirus infections are highly underestimated based on the lack of reliable diagnostic methods. It is suggested that Astrovirus ranks second place after Rotavirus in gastorenteritis in children. Transmission occurs usually from person to person. Symptoms manifest within 2 to 3 days post-infection and last for a few days. Outbreaks usually appear in the winter and spring within the temperate climate zones.

Adenoviruses (HAdV) consist of non-enveloped dsDNA and are a common cause of respiratory illness. The symptoms can range from the common cold to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Depending on the type, adenoviruses can cause other illnesses such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and less commonly, neurological diseases. Adenoviral infections affect infants and young children much more frequently than adults. Severe, disseminated infection can occur in immunocompromised subjects. Adenoviruses are responsible for 15% of children that are hospitalized with gastroenteritis.

Sapoviruses (Sapo) are single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. Sapo were first detected in 1977 as the cause of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in Sapporo, Japan. Sapo is increasingly recognized to be associated with sporadic gastroenteritis in infants and adults in the community, hospitals and other health care facilities. Although Sapo-associated diarrhea is generally mild, severe cases can occur. Transmission occurs via fecal-oral route and consumption of contaminated food. Human Sapo strains cannot be reliably cultivated in vitro, and currently, RT-PCR is the most widely used method for their detection.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Stool (5g).
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

Viral Meningitis Panel

Assay Code: HPM-077

Viral meningitis

Viral meningitis is an infection of the meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) by any one of a number of different viruses. Viral meningitis is also often referred to as aseptic meningitis. The symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck and fatigue. Rash, sore throat and intestinal symptoms may also occur.

The most common viruses to cause viral meningitis are enteroviruses (intestinal), mumps, arboviruses, herpes family viruses, varicella viruses, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Adenovirus. Because a number of different viruses are capable of causing viral meningitis, the manner in which the virus is spread depends upon the type of virus involved. Some are spread by person-to-person contact; others can be spread by insects.

Vaccination remains the most potent means of combating infections by mumps, and varicella viruses. Strict handwashing is effective in controlling the spread of enterovirus-related infections.The education of sex partners about the use of barrier devices can significantly decrease the incidence of HSV-2 infections.

PATHOGENS TESTED

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), are two members of the herpesviridae family. They contain a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. Primary Herpes simplex infection is usually acquired in childhood and is most often asymptomatic; after the primary infection, the virus becomes latent in neurons of cranial nerve ganglia (HSV1) or sacral ganglia (HSV2). Reactivation from ganglia produces cold sores or fever blisters in the mouth or on the lip, less often infections of the eye (herpes keratitis), and rarely encephalitis. Symptomatic HSV1 infections are usually manifested as recurrent orolabial and facial lesions. HSV2 is the cause of most genital herpes and is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Herpes can be spread, regardless of symptoms, between sexual partners and from mother to newborn, and is known to increase a person’s risk of contracting HIV. Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections, and the virus cannot be eradicated from the body.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a alphaherpesvirus, contains a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Unlike HSV1, it is often asymptomatic in primary infections. Primary VZV infection can result in chickenpox (varicella) characterized by malaise, fever and an extensive vesicular rash which can lead to pneumonia in adults, particularly in pregnant woman. Even after clinical symptoms of varicella have resolved, VZV remains dormant in the nervous system of the host in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. In about 10-20% of cases, VZV reactivates later in life producing a disease known as herpes zoster or shingles. Serious complications of shingles include post-herpetic neuralgia, myelitis, eye infections or zoster sine herpete.

Enteroviruses (EV) are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and other enteroviruses. Non-polio enteroviruses are very common. They are second only to the "common cold" viruses, rhinoviruses, as the most common viral infectious agents in humans. EV is most likely to occur during the summer and fall. EV affects millions of people worldwide each year, and are often found in the respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of an infected person. No vaccine is currently available for the non-polio enteroviruses.

Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are positive ssRNA viruses and are prevalent in young children. They have been associated with respiratory disease, including upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been claimed that they commonly cause mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, meningitis and neonatal sepsis.

Mumps virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, is a negative-strand RNA virus. The incubation period of mumps is 14 to 18 days. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. As many as 20% of mumps infections are asymptomatic. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. A vaccine for mumps is available in combination with measles and rubella vaccines, or in combination with measles, rubella and varicella.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: CSF (3ml), culture (3ml).
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

West Nile Virus

Assay Code: HPW-078

West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense, ssRNA virus of the genus Flavivirus in the family` Flaviviridae. It causes West Nile fever, which is a mosquito-borne viral disease and can affect birds, humans and horses causing inapparent infection, mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, or death. The arbovirus is maintained in nature by cycling through birds and mosquitoes. For many avian species, WNV infection causes no overt signs while other birds, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), often succumb to fatal systemic illness. Among mammals, clinical disease is primarily exhibited in horses and humans. Clinical signs of WNV infection in horses arise from viral-induced encephalitis or encephalomyelitis. Affected horses frequently demonstrate mild to severe ataxia. Some horses exhibit weakness, muscle fascicula tion, and cranial nerve deficits. Fever is not a consistently recognised feature of the disease in horses.


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: EDTA blood (3ml), Tissue (1g), Culture (3ml).
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM

ZIKA VIRUS

Assay Code: HPZ-079

The Zika virus belongs to Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, and is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.

The infection, known as Zika fever is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito and often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a mild form of dengue fever. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly, as well as other severe fetal brain defects. Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).


METHOD

Real Time PCR


SPECIMEN TYPE

Recommended specimen types: Serum (3ml)


TRANSPORT CONDITION

Sample should be transported at 4°C.


TURN AROUND TIME

The Turnaround (TAT) for routine samples is within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.


TEST CHARGES



REQUISITION FORM